Cervical Cancer: What You Need to Know Now

Cervical Cancer: What You Need to Know Now

Cancer of cervix  is caused by caused mainly by human papilloma virus (HPV). Most common female cancer in developing countries and can be prevented by screening and vaccination against HPV. 

Cause/Risk factors

- Infection with human papillomavirus

- Early age of first sexual intercourse 

- Multiple sexual partners (unprotected) 

- Multiparity

- Smoking

- Age ≥35 to <45 

Signs and Symptoms

- Very often asymptomatic in early stages

- Abnormal vaginal bleeding

- Post coital bleeding

- Exclude cervix cancer in any post menopausal bleeding 

- Foul smelling vaginal discharge

- Symptoms of metastasis 

- Hydronephrosis and renal failure 

- By speculum examination, lesions infiltrating the cervix


- Anemia

- Cachexia

- Pain

- Hematuria and dysuria

- Ureteral obstruction and renal failure

- Oedema of legs

- Bowel invasion: Diarrhea, Tenesmus,rectal bleeding 

- Sepsis 

- Metastasis

Stages for Cervical cancer

Stage 0: Carcinoma in situ

Stage Ia1: Stromal invasion <3 mm (microinvasive)

Stage Ia2: stromal invasion 3-5 mm

Stage Ib1: Stromal invasion >5 mm, or gross cervical 

lesion <4cm

Stage Ib2: gross cervical lesion > 4 cm

Stage IIa: extending to upper 2/3 vagina

Stage IIIa: Extending to lower 1/3 vagina

Stage IIIb: Extending into parametrium to pelvic 

sidewall or hydronephrosis

Stage IVa: extending to bladder/ bowel mucosa 

Stage IVb: distant metastasis 

stages I-IV.

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