Monkeypox ,everything you should know

Monkeypox ,everything you should know

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus transmitted from animals to human ,it is rare disease considered as less severe to human.

After eradication of Smallpox in 1980 followed by subsequent cessation of vaccination . Monkeypox has emerged as clinical significance to the public.

Monkeypox primarily occurs in Central and west Africa ,it's host include a wide range of rodents and non human primates.

Monkeypox causative agent

Monkeypox is caused by Monkeypox virus ,an enveloped double stranded virus that belongs to orthopoxyvirus genus of poxyviridae family.

Monkeypox virus natural host

Different animal species were found to be host to monkeypox virus,those animals include Rope squirrels ,Tree Squirrels ,Dormice and non human primates.

Route of Transmission for Monkeypox virus

There different route of Transmission 

1.Animal to Human transmission

It is also known as zoonotic ,it occurs with direct contact with blood ,body fluids ,cutaneous or mucosal lesions of an infected animal.

2.Eating undercooked meat of an infected animal.

Eating undercooked meat is possible risk factor especially in endemic region.

3.Human to Human Transmission

This result from close contact with respiratory secretions ,skin lesions and body fluids from infected person or from recent contaminated objects.

4.Transmission via Droplets is even possible
But this require prolonged face to face contact.

5.Transmission also occurs via placenta from mother to fetus ,or during close contact during and after birth.

6.Transmission via Sexual route but studies are needed to better understand he risks.

Signs and symptoms of Monkeypox

After infection,Signs and symptom start to appear ,those signs are 

3.Swelling of Lymph nodes
4.Back Pain
6.Intense asthenia
7.Skin Rashes.

Monkeypox is usually self limited human disease with symptoms lasting from 2 to 4 weeks.

Incubation period

Incubation period refers to time interval between infection to onset of symptoms.
It is usually from 6 to 13 days but can range from 5 to 21.

Treatment of monkeypox

Primary goal of treatment is to alleviate symptoms ,to manage complications and to prevent long-term complications .

Patient is given IV fluids and food to maintain adequate nutritional and hydration status .

Antiviral called TecoVirimat (initially was used to treat smallpox but was found effective in the treatment of Monkeypox) is given .

Monkeypox vaccines

Currently there are 2 vaccines against Monkeypox in use ,all of them ,they were developed in prevention of Smallpox but later were found to be effective in prevention of monkeypox at rate of 85% protective immunity.

First vaccine is called ACAM2000 
Second vaccine is called JYNNEOS

How to prevent Monkeypox?

There are different ways you can use in order to prevent yourself from monkeypox

1.Raising awareness of it's risk factors

2.mass vaccination for prevention and control of monkeypox

3.Isolation of an infected person or animal

4.tracking those who had close contact with an infected person .

5.Avoid eating undercooked meat and not eating meat from animals that were found dead.

6.Avoid contact with wild animals without protection.

Some interesting facts about Monkeypox

1.Monkeypox fatality rate is ranged from 0 to 11% in general population but fatality rate was found to be high among young children.

2.Monkeypox was discovered at first in 1958 in monkey in Democratic Republic of Congo.

3.Later Monkeypox was found in human in 1970 in Democratic Republic of Congo ,first patient was a 9 years boy .

4.First Monkey outbreaks outside of Africa was seen in United States of America ,and was linked to contact with an infected pet .

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